FAT IS A FEMINIST ISSUE ORBACH PDF

Fat Is a Feminist Issue [Susie Orbach] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In one volume together with its bestselling sequel When it was first. Published 40 years ago, psychotherapist Susie Orbach’s Fat Is a Feminist Issue remains a cult classic for its penetrating insights into the cultural obsession. Susie Orbach (born 6 November ) is a British psychotherapist, psychoanalyst, writer and social critic. Her first book, Fat is a Feminist Issue, analysed the.

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I naively hoped my book would change the world. By analysing and suggesting solutions to body and eating problems, I imagined they would disappear. And inequality is stubborn. Everything was up for being rethought — families, bodies, education, science, medicine, class, racism, money, sex. At school, we were encouraged to compete with feminisf for Oxbridge places while soaking in knowledge which would, when the time came for marriage, delight and please our husbands.

It seemed ever so dull. Then, suddenly the Sixties spoke to women about their own experience. There was a spectacular protest at the Miss America beauty contest in New Jersey in It was the first hint that the way we personally felt about and suffered beauty, frminist and caring was a social issue.

It looked like the world was changing. Fat Is A Feminist Issue talked about our lived experience: Emotionally schooled to see our value as both sexual beings for others and midwives to their desires, we found ourselves often depleted and empty, and caught up in a kind of compulsive giving.

Eating became our source of soothing. So far so good. Many of orbacy started challenging the homogeneity of what constituted beauty. We stopped worrying and dared to live from our bodies. And that was way before social media and the beauty bloggers with their, yes, millions of followers, would begin to reap money as daily beauty labour got instituted in a way that before then perhaps only a Hollywood makeup artist would recognise.

Beauty work became relentless and, with it, the ubiquity of judgment and failure. The story of the past 40 years is grim. No, they are invited by their doctors by text, email and letter. Because they feel so bad about their bodies.

This should alarm us. So what has changed? Go back 20 years. The porn industry is being mainstreamed. Fashion magazines are normalising pornographic images of girls.

Pre-teen girls with legs spread wide apart are looking to camera with a combination of allure, innocence and nonchalance. The girls who read them start going for Brazilian waxes.

Susie Orbach – Wikipedia

Their genitals are not to be in view for themselves. And when they are in view, they are presented as inadequate and available for labiaplasty. If we go back four years, we see the development of cosmetic surgery apps, games marketed to little girls in which they prepare for the surgery they will have when they are old enough. Already at six they will have been targeted with make-up and fashion and bras.

Hourly vigilance is yet to come but the notion of a body ready and available for reconstruction is firmly planted. It is as normalised as the troubled eating she can expect in her journey through life.

By the time they become preteens, girls have been living on their smartphones.

That is where life happens and the saturation of the screen with images and likes, with its constant entreaty to be approved of, should give us pause. It is felt as the expression of personal fwminist, with the promise that looking good is doing good. But I know from the young women Iwsue work with that the search for likes is rather more troubling than that. It is an often desperate search for approval, for safety, for body acceptance — a frequently elusive quest.

If that young woman comes to parenting, frantic body preoccupation may have so invaded and insinuated itself feminkst her that she will have schemes for managing food and managing appearance. Midwives and health professionals tell me they have noticed a dramatic change. And the anxiety the mothering person might well feel will be inadvertently transmitted to their baby, who will journey through life frightened of food and confused about their body self.

This is then exacerbated by ogbach rapacious food industry — from the diet promoters to the so-called clean eating movement to the manufacturers of non-food foods. When you grow up absorbing the idea that food is quasi-dangerous, it is hard to know how to handle it.

Fat Is a Feminist Issue by Susie Orbach

So, too, with other food and diet fads. The desperation that orbachh to be at peace and dwell in our bodies clashes with the knowledge that such schemas promote or reinforce confusion about appetite and desire.

I love clothes but how have we been persuaded to buy that much?

fay The penetration of visual culture says how we look is so essential to our existence that we must spend, spend, spend. We are talking of large industries and issur hours spent in persuading us to labour over transforming while attempting to live from our bodies.

I could go on. There is the cosmetic industry, the cosmetic surgery industry, the doll market, the role of internet beauty bloggers who have followers in their millions and robach course the horror for youngsters of living online and being continually scrutinised.

But the shame, the hiding, the confusions that beset us would diminish and we would be stronger in our fightback and our fight to control our own bodies. The body has become a political project. From rape as a weapon of war to the internal belief that we must be constantly wary about our appetites, to limiting ourselves individually and collectively because so much of our energy is misemployed, we have to act together to find ways through these minefields.

Fat Is a Feminist Issue

The energy from MeToo, with its reinvigoration of feminism, can help us say enough is enough. We need more rage, more refusal and more love. Topics Society The Observer. Order by newest oldest recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All. Threads collapsed expanded unthreaded. Loading comments… Trouble loading?

HBD-8300BT MANUAL PDF

Bassett, VA Mr Rob Spilman Electrical design manual for hbd mp Band aparelhos h buster hbd bt manual pdf dance instruction richmond va pdf. Hbd e bluray player sony bdve operating instructions manual. We have 2 pioneer mvh bt manuals available for free pdf download. Hbuster. kota longboards owner’s manual KOTA SHOP KOTA Longboards. KOTA Longboards are do hbd bt. Manual do hbd bt manl. inf.

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IALA BUOYAGE SYSTEM PDF

What are the differences between the two IALA buoyage systems, IALA Region A and IALA Region B, and where are they used?. R – The IALA Maritime Buoyage System Format: PDF Language: English. Download · About IALA · News & Events · Meeting Docs. A lateral buoy, lateral post or lateral mark, as defined by the International Association of Previously there had been 30 different buoyage systems, before IALA rationalised the system. In on a conference convened by IALA, they agreed.

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Marine buoys meanings navigation markers australia iala system channel markers colors. The cardinal buoys are yellow and black. Isolated danger mark marine navigation buoys and marking buoys part of the iala system.

Included is a buoy identification chart for navigation buoys and markers. A yellow buoy may mark which of the following? What uala is a marker that indicates safe water? What does a white marker with red vertical stripes indicate?

Lateral mark

What do lateral markers indicate? This aid to navigation is the method of buoys and other lateral markers which identify features such as channels or obstructions. Marking the sides of shallow, winding channels iiala required early on in sailing.

The original system were markers comprising of sticks, tree branches or floating barrels, but a more sophisticated aid to navigation was needed when larger vessels required access to inland ports. The IALA maritime buoyage system, where the marker colour coding scheme of red for port left and green for starboard right was implemented worldwide.

These different lateral buoyage systems operate successfully and confusion only arises when sailing from one system into a country using the other, or where there is neither system. Where there is an island close off the mainland, the ‘direction’ of buoyage is determined by the direction in which the flood tide flows.

Navigation—buoys, marks and beacons (Maritime Safety Queensland)

Where two tides meet, the IALA maritime buoyage system changes direction at a determined point, and this is marked on charts. The edges of channels are indicated with channel marker buoys and channel markers and are arranged according to the direction of buoyage. Channel marker buoys and channel markers are often [ numbered ]starting from seaward with even numbers on red marks and odd numbers on green marks.

Where a channel divides, preferred channel marks which are modified lateral marks, indicate the main channel. IALA buoyage system around coastlines is typically ialq in a clockwise direction. Check the maritime chart if the direction of buoyage is not obvious and will be marked using an [ arrow with buoyag dots ]. The [ Cardinal System ] of buoys has been universally adopted in conjunction with the lateral system. Large or individual hazards are designated with cardinal marker buoys.

Named after the points of the compass, they indicate which side to pass by them to avoid the danger, i. Being pillar or spar shaped buoys the cardinal buoys are painted yellow and black.

All have two black cones on the top variously arranged one above the other along with white flashing lights that flash in a sequence indicating which quadrant they sit in. In principle, minor estuarial buoyaeg are marked with the lateral system and the approaches and major obstructions are marked with the cardinal mark system.

The top marks of cardinal buoys consist of the combination of two black cones, mounted one above the other on the top of the buoy with the following combinations:. The colours of the cardinal buoys can be hard to identify when weed or bird fouling occurs, and recognizing the colour of the buoy as yellow signifies north or west and a black buoy as south or east, while identifying the top mark positively, ensures that bkoyage fouling confuses the issue.

The meaning of an [ isolated danger mark ] is used to indicate a small, solitary danger with safe water all around. An isolated danger can be a rock or a sunken boat.

The marker has horizontal black and red bands and two black spheres on top. A [ safe water mark ] is used for mid-channel or landfall marks. It means systme there is safe water all around the position.

The safe water mark syztem a spherical buoy, or a pillar or spar, with vertical red and buoyagee stripes and with a red ball on top.

They are not primarily intended to assist in marine navigation and where cones, cans, or spheres are used, they show the side on which to pass. Marine navigation using lights that [ identify buoys ]shore beacons, leading marks, and lighthouses make marine navigation at night possible.

Buoys are lit oala short-range lights and medium-range iaa on shore beacons while long-range lights are used on lighthouses. There may be difficulty in identifying marks at night in the vicinity of ordinary shore lights.

IALA Maritime Buoyage System – Navigation Buoys and Channel Markers Explained

To differentiate between shore lights, different lighting characteristics are used for specific marks to aid in identification. The light characteristic of each mark is noted on the chart of the area and in sailing directions. Usually, lights are white, red, green, or yellow, but purple, blue, and orange may also be used. To ensure that the mark has iwla correctly identified, buoyzge the timing of the flashing through three full sequences.

Prior to entering a channel, be familiar with the abbreviations and the patterns associated with bjoyage maritime buoyage system on the chosen passage.

Terms used on charts are:. When approaching a harbor at night with many shore lights, it can be difficult to pick out the next buoy in the sequence.

A [ hand bearing compass ] sighted along the expected bearing of the buoy may make it easier to find. Lighthouses, and other beacons, use coloured sector lights indicating safe and dangerous areas. The chart shows details of the colours and wystem angles.

Click Search Term for Answer in Red: Marine Navigation Buoys and Channel Markers [ Lateral A ] system has red flat-topped cairns to port on entering, and green conical marks to starboard. With both systems, the buoys and markers may or may not have lights mounted on them. Cardinal Markers and Buoys The [ Cardinal System ] of buoys has been universally dystem in conjunction with the lateral system. The top marks of cardinal buoys consist of the combination of two black cones, mounted one above the other on the top of the buoy with the following combinations: If there is confusion between east and west cardinals, think of the w dystem as being w aisted.

The colours used in the Cardinal system are yellow and black.

North is a black pillar on a yellow buoy; South is a yellow pillar on a black buoy; East is a black and yellow pillar on a black buoy, and West a yellow and black pillar on a yellow buoy. Isolated danger mark; The safe water mark; The special mark. Isolated Danger Mark The meaning of an [ isolated danger mark ] is used to indicate a small, solitary danger with safe water all around.

Safe Water Mark A [ safe water mark ] is used for mid-channel or landfall marks. Special Marks [ Special Marks ] which zone off recreational areas, such as water ski areas are yellow and may have an X-shaped top mark or any shape preventing them being confused with a navigational mark. Marine Navigation at Night Marine navigation using lights that [ identify buoys ]shore beacons, leading marks, and lighthouses make marine navigation at night possible.

Terms used on charts are: Privacy Policy Site Map Links.

BUTLINS BROCHURE PDF

IT’S WHAT WE’VE ALWAYS BEEN ABOUT SINCE SIR BILLY BUTLIN opened his first resort in Skegness in Since then we’ve been providing breaks. Apr 1, As we’re always adding new attractions to make your next Butlin’s break fresh and exciting, we found that the information inside our printed. BUTLINS BROCHURE. Set in top holiday hotspots, Butlins 3 modern entertainment resorts are offering the 3 weather–proof resorts are open all year and are.

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Set in top holiday hotspots, Butlins 3 modern entertainment resorts are offering the 3 weather—proof resorts are open all year and are filled with new experiences for all the family!

Butlins are still butlnis passionate today as they were in about offering the perfect place for you and your family to create those special holiday memories!

On a Butlins break you’ll find sports, indoor and outdoor activities and plenty of daytime and evening shows to suit the whole family. Plus there’s a free funfair and brchure sub tropical waterworld with slides and flumes at every resort!

What more could you ask for? If you’re looking for even more places to unwind, all three resorts are also within easy reach of some of the UK’s most beautiful areas of natural beauty. Butlins Brochure Malika Brocbure. Look forward to some offers of packaged deals with travel and park entry and hotel Butlins Brochure Faiza O.

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KRAMER VP 23N PDF

The VPN is a 4×1 composite video, a 4×1 s-Video (Y/C) and 4×1 computer graphics video switcher, each with balanced stereo audio. It is designed for a wide. Buy Kramer VPN Multiple A/V Switcher featuring Three Separate Switchers, Video and Graphics Balanced Audio Switching. Review Kramer. The Kramer VPN is a 4×1 composite video, a 4×1 S-Video (Y/C) and 4×1 computer graphics video switcher, each with balanced stereo audio. It is designed.

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Protocol Definitions Table Getting Started Quick Start This quick start chart summarizes the basic setup and operation steps. However, the unshielded twisted pair UTP cable should be installed far away from electric cables, motors etc.

Your Presentation Switcher Figure 1: Your Presentation Switcher Table 2: Your Presentation Switcher Figure 2: The machine is earthed grounded in a reliable way power and is connected only to an electricity socket with If you are using a Kramer rack grounding.

Pay particular attention to situations where adapter kit for a machine that is not electricity is supplied indirectly when the power cord 19″see the Rack Adapters user Switching on the VPN, recalls the previous setup from the non- volatile memory 4 Although in this example only one source is connected, you can connect all of the four inputs, that is, 12 in total KRAMER: Connect the acceptors to a projector as follows: Default Dipswitch Settings Table 8: The video will continue to display but without sound.

This distance can be extended to up to 60 meters when used with three extension cables Before using the external IR receiver, be sure to arrange for your Kramer dealer to insert an internal IR connection cablewhich is required so that the REMOTE IR 3.

Device menu, or press the integrated circuit icon in the upper right corner of the window.

KRAMER VPN USER MANUAL Pdf Download.

Device Selection Window 4. Click the button next to the name of the krzmer and select from the list: Selecting the Device from the Selection Window 5.

Flash Memory Upgrade 9. After each stage of the operation is completed, the check-box for that stage becomes colored green When the operation is completed, all 4 check-boxes will be colored green and the status bar message: For disconnect, set as 0. For other operations, these bits are defined according to Table Bit 7 — defined as 1. Bits defined as 0. Bit 7 — Defined as 1. Bits Defined as 0.

Kramer VPN Multiple A/V Switcher VPN B&H Photo Video

For the latest information on our products and a list of Kramsr distributors, visit our Web site: We welcome your questions, comments and feedback. Page of 43 Go. VPN Presentation Switcher Page 10 – Table 2: Page 11 – Figure 2: Page 12 – Table 3: Page 13 – Figure 3: Page 16 Page 17 – Figure 4: Connecting the VPN Presenta Page 24 – 6.

Page 25 – Figure Control Configuration via RS Switching in the Master Audio Atmel – Flip Window Page 34 – Figure Selecting the Device from the Page 35 – Figure RS Window Page 36 – Figure Atmel – Flip Window Operatio Table of Contents Add to my manuals Add. Page 3 Table Introduction 2 We recommend that you use only the power cord that is supplied with this machine 3 Download up-to-date Kramer user manuals from our Web site at http: Overview However, the unshielded twisted pair UTP cable should be installed far away from electric cables, motors etc.

Atmel – Flip Window Device menu, or press the integrated circuit icon in the upper right corner of the window. Communication Protocol For disconnect, set as 0.

Kramer VP-23N User Manual

Page 43 For the latest information on our products and a list of Kramer distributors, visit our Web site: Comments to this Manuals Your Name. Enter text from picture: By pressing ‘print’ button you will print only current page.

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DIN EN 15635 PDF

DIN EN Steel static storage systems – Application and maintenance of storage equipment. Buy DIN EN () Steel Static Storage Systems – Adjustable Pallet Racking – Guideline For Safe Use from SAI Global. Racking Inspection – DIN EN Regular inspections for warehouse equipment to EU standard. The standard DIN EN “Application and maintenance of.

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From racking and shelving inspection to their repair. What information is important?

Racking Inspection – DIN EN – SSI SCHAEFER

Your warehouse safety is important to us! We have compiled an overview of the full range of racking and shelving inspections, applicable standards, obligations of the operator of racking and shelving systems, measures to be taken through to rack and shelf repairs.

Racks and shelves are work equipment. They are therefore subject to the Ordinance on industrial safety and health BetrSichV. Storage operators must have a competent person regularly inspect their racking and shelving in accordance with the European standard DIN EN as well as the Ordinance on industrial safety and health.

ELVEDI has racking and shelving inspectors certified by the Association of Storage and Associated Equipment Manufacturers who can annually control the safety of your racking and shelving systems.

One of the most effective means of saving material is to reduce the thickness of the shelves, i. Even minor damage can reduce the load capacity of shelves. Unstable racking and shelving systems pose an extraordinary risk to humans, machines, and stored goods. According to the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Berlin, racks and shelves are work equipment and are therefore subject to the Ordinance on industrial safety and health BetrSichV. The BetrSichV applies to the provision of shelves by the employer as well as to the use of shelves by the employees.

Paragraph 10 of the BetrSichV requires regular inspections of storage equipment. The standard is valid since and was published by the Beuth-Verlag. According to the Ordinance on industrial safety and health, the employer is responsible for the safety of storage equipment. An inspection of racks and shelves must be carried out at least every 12 months by a competent person.

Standardised European inspection requirement. Already sincethe regulation of the employers’ liability insurance association stipulates the following obligation: Responsibility lies with the employer.

The employer is obliged to systematically and regularly inspect all warehouse equipment — i. If the manufacturer does not stipulate more stringent inspections on the basis of the rack design or the operating conditions, the provisions of the DIN EN standard must be observed: Certified racking and shelving inspectors. A qualified inspection requires a high level of expertise.

Certified racking and shelving inspectors have the necessary specialist knowledge. Insights into the structural racking analysis.

The annual inspection of racks and shelves must be performed by a competent person. Competent means that the inspector is familiar with the laws, regulations, rules of the trade associations and European standards that apply specifically to racking and shelving, e.

In addition, specialised knowledge of the specific racking and shelving is necessary. For a qualified inspection, it is imperative that the inspector has access to the structural racking analysis. The German Association of Storage and Associated Equipment Manufacturers and its members compiled a checklist to ensure optimal racking and shelving inspection.

The practice-oriented course is given by a competent team of trainers. They receive a certificate and an official identity card. Racking and shelving systems subject to inspection. The inspection is carried out during ongoing operation. The racking and shelving inspector performs visual inspections and checks, amongst others, whether the protective measures, the shelf components and the loads comply with provisions.

The inspection is carried out systematically on the basis of a standardised inspection protocol. The results of the inspection are then logged. If damages are detected at an early stage, many serious accidents can be avoided and repair costs can usually be kept low. Since an in-depth analysis of the damage often reveals its causes, corresponding preventive measures can be initiated subsequently.

Examples from other European countries, such as Great Britain or the Netherlands, where such inspections have been taking place for many years, show that safety has increased while repair costs have been saved.

Measures to be taken in case of damage.

The racking and shelving inspection has taken place. Were damages found on your racking and shelving systems? If that is the case, measures must be taken to remedy them.

What exactly needs to be done and whether a repair is necessary depends on the danger level — classification in the inspection protocol. Green level Requiring surveillance only. The damage has no influence on the load 1635 stated on the nameplate.

The components must be identified accordingly and checked ej the following inspection. Amber risk Hazardous damage requiring action as soon as possible.

The damage to the ne needs to be fixed. However, immediate action is not required. If a damaged component has been relieved, repairs must only be carried out before it is loaded again.

Red risk Very serious damage requiring immediate action. This classification level refers to damages that significantly affect the load capacities of the components.

There is thus an urgent need to repair or replace the affected components. How are repairs 15653 out. Damaged components should not be repaired but completely replaced. Repairs to damaged components shall not be allowed unless approved by the equipment supplier: The racking column is the most important component.

Bulging or other similar methods usually make the damage worse. Damaged rack columns must be replaced. Damaged crossbars must also always be replaced.

Racking Inspection – DIN EN 15635

Repairs that have not been agreed with the manufacturer can be fatal! Original parts must be used to avoid risks during repairs of racks and shelves and protect those carrying out the repairs. Continuous training of the operator and proper handling of the storage system help prevent damages and avoid repair costs.

You would like us to carry 1535 a racking inspection on your installation? Use our contact form to request a quotation…… Quotation request for racking inspection.

LITURGIA HODIN PDF

Liturgia hodin [Liturgy of the Hours],Typis polyglottis Vaticanis Obeznik kongregacie pre bohosluzbu o priprave a slavene velkonocnych sviatkov [ Circular. 3. prosinec Keywords: breviár, liturgia hodín, breviář, denní modlitba církve, Liturgie hodin, Az Imaórák Liturgiája, online breviár, online liturgia hodín. Keywords: breviár, liturgia hodín, breviář, denní modlitba církve, Liturgie hodin, Az Imaórák Liturgiája, online breviár, online liturgia hodín.

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Liturgia hodín

Is there any place I could listen to the melody and follow the prayers. It has been brought to my attention that Steven van Roode has typeset and posted on the web Hodinn Gregorian music for Lauds, Vespers, and Compline of the Liturgia Horarum for Sundays and major feasts of the Lord. He has compiled his chants following the Ordo Cantus Officiijust as I did when compiling the Antiphonarium pro Liturgia Horarum iuxta usum Ordinis Praedicatorum, which includes the chants of the whole year for all the Hours.

His downloadable files are linked on the left side bar or my be found directly here at his site. In my project, I substituted, of course, Dominican hoxin for the Roman ones, except in the rare cases where there was no parallel chant. We have both done the best we could finding suitable replacement chants when the OCO either specified a chant from an unpublished manuscript unavailable in digital form or where for reasons beyond me the OCO gave a newly composed liturrgia text lituggia obviously had no Gregorian melody.

Readers may wish to compare hofin Dominican hymn, respond, and antiphon melodies with the Roman ones using this resource. It is interesting to see how the two different chant traditions preserve in different forms what is essentially the same melodies.

The difference choices in melodies for hymns and the ordinary are also of interest.

Van Roode for completing this project and for his beautiful typesetting. Newer Post Older Post Home. Tempus Adventus et Nativitatis Vol. Tempus Per Annum I Vol.

Liturgia delle Ore

Read about or order Fr. Conversi, Lay, and Cooperator Friars.

Augustine Thompson’s Cities of God: The Religion of the Italian Communes, The Great Devotion of Cantus Communium Sandhofe Nocturnale: Cantus Novi Sandhofe Nocturnale: Rome, Professionis Ritus O. Choir Washington, Saint Dominic Missal: Lincoln, A Canon from Castile: The Early LIfe of St. Peter the Martyr, and St. Thomas Aquinas, University of Ottawa M.

Thesis, Frank Gorton, Jr. Compline in the Dominican Rite, to Indiana Univ. PhD Dissertation, L.

Robert Amiet, Missels et breviaires Paris: Haller, “Early Dominican Mass Chants: Institute of Medieval Music, Cracow Dominican Antiphonal MS ca. Vincent Benoit’s Blog Gregobase: Peter Jeffery of Princeton Univ.

Pictures and Commentary 2 St. Thomas Aquinas 1 St.

GLENDA CRESTO PDF

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CARDIOLOGIA DE GUADALAJARA BOO PDF

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En los siguientes subtemas:. Editor en Jefe Dr. One of the most common indications buadalajara echocardiography is the evaluation of left ventricular function. It has traditionally been evaluated as left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular end-systolic volume, both remaining as the simplest and most widely used parameters for global assessment of left ventricular function.

Tuadalajara, two-dimensional echocardiography has been routinely used in clinical practice to measure left ventricle LV dimensions, wall thickness, and function, the latter focused in the measurement of ejection fraction which is based upon tracing the left ventricular borders and calculating left ventricular volumes using geometric assumptions. Besides, the inadvertent use of foreshortened views can raise its inaccuracy and low reproducibility.

Alternatively, LV function can be assessed by Doppler techniques through the measurements of stroke volume using the continuity equation. However, calculations of stroke volume by Doppler are dependent on the accuracy of left ventricle outflow tract measurement LVOT ; errors in the measurement, which are squared in the calculation of the LVOT area, limit the reliability of this parameter.

In search of a method to quantify LV volumes and left ventricle ejection fraction, real-time three-dimensional echocardiography is an important step forward in cardiac ultrasound.

Understanding Heart Failure

Multiple studies have demonstrated the superior accuracy and reproducibility of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography over two-dimensional echo-cardiography for assessment of cardiac function. Nevertheless, segmental wall motion has been more difficult to evaluate. Regional myocardial function by echocardiography is usually evaluated by visual assessment of endocardial motion and wall thickening using two-dimensional echocardiography.

This approach, however, suffers from being subjective providing only semi- quantitative data and is limited by huge intra- and inter-observer variability. Visual assessment has limited ability to detect more subtle changes in function and in timing of carxiologia motion throughout systole and guaadlajara.

Recently, echo-cardiographic modalities for objective quantification of global and regional function have been developed such as tissue Doppler and speckle tracking imaging.

In this article, we review in a concise manner the methodology behind the development, usefulness, and shortcomings of these echocardiographic techniques. In cardiac muscle physiology, strain is a measurement of deformation representing shortening or stretching of the tissue or myocardial fibers. The strain value is dimensionless and can be represented as a fractional number or as a percentage change from an object’s original dimension Figure 1.

As the ventricle contracts, muscle shortens in the circumferential and longitudinal dimensions a negative strain and thickens in the radial and transversal direction a positive strain. Strain is defined as the fractional change in length of an element of the object when compared bio its original length. Main left ventricle strain vectors in short axis and apical views. Theoretically, strain values are not affected by the guadaljaara translational motion of the heart and, as a consequence, they offer a clear advantage over velocity and displacement to assess the local functionality of the myocardium.

Completely passive segments can show motion relative to the transducer due to tethering, but without any deformation, making velocity and displacement information completely unreliable for the characterization of such regions.

Strain parameters, on the guadalajafa hand, are caddiologia to as motion-deformation between two points in the cardiplogia wall, which is unrelated to the motion towards the transducer, guadalaajra this fact discriminates the actual passive movement from true contraction in any myocardial region Vuadalajara 3. A moving object ed not necessarily suffering deformation so long as every part of it moves carfiologia the same velocity. Deformation occurs when different elements guadxlajara the same object move at different velocities so the object has to change shape during its movement.

Strain rate SR is the rate at which deformation occurs, i. By definition it is the temporal derivative of strain and expresses the rate of shortening or lengthening of a part of the heart. Strain rate describes the velocity of deformation. Currently, the principal bop vectors and their velocity derivatives Strain Rate can be assessed by tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography.

Rather than assessing the rapid velocity blood pool as with conventional Doppler, uses filters to remove these signals to concentrate solely on the lower velocity myocardial motion.

Tissue Doppler imaging allows a quantitative analysis of the motion pattern of the cardiac walls. Some published studies have suggested that tissue velocity, strain, and strain rate by tissue Doppler are more accurate methods for evaluation of global and regional function when compared with conventional echocardiographic methods Figure 5. Several groups of investigators have demonstrated that strain analysis of a broader area is probably superior to tissue velocity data at one site bko wall motion score for tracking local systolic function.

Examples of Tissue Doppler imaging measurements: A myocardial longitudinal segmental velocity in four regions of the anterior and inferior LV walls; B myocardial longitudinal segmental strain in lateral and septal LV walls; C myocardial longitudinal segmental strain rate in two regions in the lateral wall demonstrating some decrease in the velocity of deformation in the region represented by the yellow line; D myocardial longitudinal tissue displacement.

One of the most important clinical applications of TDI is the quantification of global LV systolic function; this can be done by measuring the myocardial peak systolic velocities of the mitral valve annulus at several locations and to derive an average of them.

Gulati et al, reported an excellent correlation between systolic mitral annulus velocity Sm averaged from the apical views and LV ejection fraction. Other applications of TDI in clinical practice comprise the differentiation carriologia restrictive cardiomyopathy and constrictive pericarditis, 25,26 the early identification of cardiomyopathies, detection of ischemia and evaluation of viability, and guadalajzra study of patients with dys-synchrony.

Limitations of tissue doppler imaging: The angle dependency is a serious limitation of all Doppler-based techniques, including Doppler-derived myocardial velocities and strain. This limits the use of TDI-derived strain measurements primarily to longitudinal fibers, with the inability to quantify deformation in the radial plane. Therefore, it is essential that the ultrasound beam is aligned parallel to the left ventricle wall in long-axis imaging to obtain longitudinal segmental measurements, and perpendicular to the wall for radial measurements in the short axis.

This implies that strain measurements from myocardial segments close to the left ventricle apical curvature cannot be reliably assessed by tissue Doppler imaging. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Speckle-tracking echocardiography STE has been introduced as a technique for guadakajara quantification of multidirectional myocardial strain.

Speckle tracking is an application of pattern-matching technology to ultrasound cine data. Speckles are natural acoustic markers that occur as small and bright elements in conventional gray scale ultrasound images. The speckles are backscattered from structures smaller than a wavelength of ultrasound.

These speckles are distributed all through the myocardium on the ultrasound image. In the speckle tracking methodology, a small area of the myocardium with its unique speckle pattern can be defined it is called “kernel” and tracked, following a search algorithm based on optical flow method, trying to recognize the most similar speckle pattern from one frame to another.

Understanding Heart Failure | SciTechnol

The algorithm searches for an area with the smallest difference in the total sum of pixel values, which is the smallest sum of absolute differences 39 Figure A speckles are acoustic markers in conventional grayscale ultrasound images, they form small areas or patterns called “kernel”; B a speckle pattern is defined and tracked frame by frame based on block-matching-optical flow method.

For accurate speckle tracking, a high frame rate is important. Speckle patterns change over the course of the cardiac cycle because of deformation of the heart and out-of-plane motion.

A high frame rate decreases the speckle change between frames, allowing better tracking. Measurements can be done simultaneously from multiple regions of interest within an image plane from conventional gray-scale B-mode recordings.

The distance between selected speckles is measured within a predefined myocardial area as a function of time, and parameters of myocardial deformation can be calculated. This is in contrast to Doppler-based measurements where the sample volume is a fixed area se space and all measurements are done with reference to an external point the transducer. Strain measurements from the speckle-tracking technique are therefore direct measures of myocardial deformation while tissue Doppler imaging calculates strain by integrating cariologia rate.

Another important advantage by using the new technique is independence from insonation angle and cardiac translation. In the short-axis view, radial strain and circumferential strain can be calculated. These values are not independent, one is positive wall thickening cqrdiologia the other is negative segment shortening in a normal heart. In the apical four- three- and two-chamber views, transversal strain and longitudinal strain can be calculated 45 Figure Assessment of the main principal strain axes by two-dimensional speckle tracking in a healthy volunteer: A radial, B circumferential, and C longitudinal axis.

The first column represents measurement of strain in each main principal strain axis; the second column represents guadalxjara of strain rate, and the third column tissue velocity.

For these reasons, speckle tracking echocardiography provides a direct measure of myocardial deformation and appears to be a more booo method than Doppler-based strain imaging, which estimates strain as the time integral of spatial velocity voo Table The potential of 2D speckle tracking echocardiography has been investigated in numerous experimental and clinical studies for exploration of systolic and diastolic ventricular function, assessing ischemia, dyssynchrony, and other cardiac conditions, 46 some of which will be cited representatively in this review.

In initial studies, Becker et al, used 2D speckle tracking imaging to assess regional LV function. They compared a healthy group with a group of patients with previous myocar-dial infarction. They assessed radial and circumferential strains, and tried to distinguish between normokinesis, hypokinesis, and akinesis based on the segment American Heart Association model.

All subjects underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging CMRI. They found excellent correlation between the values obtained for peak radial and circumferential strains and the visual assessment of the MRI images. The sensitivity and specificity of this technique in the detection of dyssynergy were Furthermore, they demonstrated that this technique had good inter- and intra-observer variability when both measurements were performed using the same cardiac cycle.

The results of these studies demonstrated concordance in the estimation of LV torsion between speckle tracking and tagged MRI and made the assessment of LV rotation and torsion available in clinical cardiology. Left ventricular torsion is a critical component of cardiac biomechanics because it is important for normal ejection and suction and is a feature of the normal spread of excitation and connections among fibers.

The human heart has a specific helical arrangement of the myofibers with a right-hand orientation from the base toward the apex in the endocardial layers and a left-hand orientation in the epicardial layers.

The difference between apex and base in the rotation angle is called twist and contributes significantly to LV ejection, in addition to myocardial shortening and thickening. It also has an important role in diastole since it contributes to diastolic suction in the early phases of ventricular filling in a process called untwist.

Left ventricular torsion can be quantified by speckle tracking echocardiography. By measuring apical and basal rotation from LV short-axis recordings, twist has been explored in both clinical and experimental studies 56,57 Figure Assessment of rotation by two-dimensional speckle tracking at the level of the base A and apex, B the figure at the right bottom, C shows the rotational direction at base red arrow and apical green arrow levels of the left ventricle, and the plot, D corresponds to their representation through the cardiac cycle and their relation with cardiac twist.

Three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. The interpretation of echocardiographic images requires a complex mental integration of different planes to understand anatomic structures and physiologic functions. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging are limited to two-dimensional analysis Figure Tracking in Two-dimensional images is affected by out of plane cardiac motion.

The recent development of ultrasound systems with the capability to acquire real-time full volume data of the whole left ventricle makes it possible to perform speckle tracking in three dimensions, and thereby track the real motion of the myocardium.

Instead of using two-dimensional templates to view two-dimension movement, cubic templates allow motion analysis of the entire ventricle in three-dimension. Three-Dimensional speckle tracking takes into account the motion of the cardiac wall not only in a concrete plane radial, longitudinal, circumferential, and transversal but also in three dimensions.

That is why the three-dimensional format more closely represents reality and better accuracy than the two-dimensional format. Using a full 3D template, the software can track the complete speckle’s movement through the cardiac cycle, avoiding out of plane cardiac motion.

Three dimensional speckle tracking is a recent modality and its clinical application is currently being evaluated. They concluded that 3D speckle tracking “is a simple, feasible, and reproducible method to measure strain”.

They also reported differences in strain measurements and time to perform a complete 3DSTE analysis compared with 2D speckle tracking results. Currently 3D STE is being applied in the clinical field by several groups around the world. Current limitations of speckle tracking echo-cardiography. The dependence of speckle tracking echocardiography on frame-by-frame tracking of the myocardial pattern makes it dependent on image factors including reverberation artifacts and attenuation; technical proficiency remains important in image processing:

DIVISION PSILOPHYTA PDF

– An online study & reference for reserchers, students in botany with full reference on research institutes and scientific. 5 What name is given to the condition in which male and female spores and gametophytes are produced separately on one plant? A. heterospory B. alternation. Kingdom Eubacteria includes the Division Eubacteriophyta Division Eubacteriophyta (True Bacteria or Eubacteria) .. Division Psilophyta (Psilotum). Primitive.

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Classification | USDA PLANTS

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Plant Life Cycles Plant life dividion alternate between two cycles: Producing spores and producing gametes.

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